Infant Toddler Development Training
|Developmental Period||Motor Domain Milestones|
|Birth - 4 months||The typical sequence of motor development begins with raising head and chest, sitting up with adult support, rolling over and batting at objects|
|4 - 8 months||Infants begin to gain control of head, trunk, and arm movements, and sit up alone.|
|8 -12 months||Infants begin to reach for and grasp objects, begin to creep, and stand up holding on. Pincer grasp has evolved which allows a child to pick up objects bringing together the thumb and index finger|
|12 - 24 months||Toddlers begin to creep, stand alone, and then walk alone. Toddlers begin to creep up stairs, run, draw on paper, and kick a ball.|
|24 - 36 months||Child can use crayons, ride a tricycle, and jump off a step. Children are typically not ready for toilet training until the end of their second year or beginning of their third year. Prior to this time, muscles that retain and release urine and bowel movements cannot be controlled.|
The cognitive domain refers to intellect or mental abilities. Cognition involves receiving, processing, and organizing information that has been perceived through the senses and using the information appropriately. Cognition entails interaction between the individual child and his/her environment or events in the environment. Survival and primitive learning in infants begin with reflexive behaviors.
|Developmental Period||Cognitive Domain Milestones|
|Birth - 4 months||During the first few months of life, babies track objects, begin to study their hands, distinguish some tastes, begin to mouth objects, imitate gestures that are modeled, and look in the direction of a sound source.|
|4 - 8 months||Cause and effect is developed. Babies begin to realize that they can cause interesting reactions. Another concept learned at this age is object permanence - the world is more permanent than previously thought. The toy that was hidden under the box did not actually vanish but is still there under the box. Depth perception is also evident.|
|8 -12 months||Babies can follow simple instructions, reach for toys that are out of reach but within sight, and show appropriate use of everyday items by pretending.|
|12 - 24 months||Children enjoy object-hiding activities, use three to four objects in combination, name many everyday objects, and move objects across the midline (passes something from one hand to another).|
|24 - 36 months||By age 3, children say on average, 272 words, understand simple pictures, like to look at books, and say phrases and simple sentences.|
The social/emotional domain encompasses feelings and emotions, behaviors, attachments and relationships with others, independence, self-esteem, and temperament. Infants like to be held and cuddled when awake and begin to establish a bond or emotional attachment with parents and caregivers which evolve into a sense of trust and security.
|Developmental Period||Social/Emotional Domain Milestones|
|Birth - 4 months||Infants can react differently to changes in adult voices (frown, smile), coo and squeal when awake, stop crying when parent/caregiver nears, and recognize and reach out to familiar faces and objects.|
|4 - 8 months||Infants develop a beginning awareness of self, become more outgoing, laugh out loud, and begin to exhibit stranger anxiety.|
|8 -12 months||Babies want parent/caregiver to be in constant sight, offer toys and objects to others, repeat behaviors that get attention, and begin to exhibit assertiveness.|
|12 - 24 months||Babies become less wary of strangers, play alone for short periods, begin to assert independence, enjoy adult attention, and often imitate adults in play.|
|24 - 36 months||Children begin to show signs of empathy and caring, become impatient, often become defiant, increase temper tantrums, and use physical aggression if frustrated or angry.|
The communication/language domain refers to perceiving, understanding and producing communication/language. Communication abilities will vary on age ranging from crying and fussing to eventually communicating with spoken sounds and words.
|Developmental Period||Communication/Language Domain Milestones|
|Birth - 4 months||The infant communicates both directly and indirectly through crying, fussing, blinking, shifting eyes, showing preferences for certain sounds, turning head toward voice/sound and making sounds other than crying.|
|4 - 8 months||Babies respond appropriately to their own name and simple requests (i.e. Bye-bye). Babbling begins such as "ba, ba, ba" at this age and imitates nonspeech sounds (i.e. cough, lip smacking).|
|8 -12 months||Babies begin to shake head for "no" and nod for "yes" and say "da-da" and "ma-ma."|
|12 - 24 months||Children follow simple directions. Speech is intelligible around 40 percent of the time and typically uses five to 50 words. Children also respond to simple questions with "yes" and "no" and appropriate head movement.|
|24 - 36 months||At 2 years of age, children use from 50 to 300 different words with vocabulary increasing constantly. Speech becomes as much as 75 percent intelligible and repeatedly ask, "What's that" Receptive language is more developed than expressive language (know more than they can talk about).|
The self-help or adaptive domain involves adapting to the environment and ability to do things for oneself. Some skills associated with this domain include feeding, dressing, toileting, and drinking independently.
|Developmental Period||Self-Help/Adaptive Domain Milestones|
|Birth - 4 months||Babies express the need for food by crying. They also signal the need for diaper changes and express pleasure when placed in warm water (bathing).
Eventually during this time, they begin to help by using their own hands to guide the nipple.
|4 - 8 months||Babies show interest in feeding activities. Also during this time, babies can pull off own socks, and Velcro closures on clothing.|
|8 -12 months||Children begin to hold their own cup and drink, and begin to eat finger foods. They also begin to pull off soiled or wet diaper. Generally, children during this age begin to sleep until 6 or 8 am.|
|12 - 24 months||Children use a spoon to some degree to feed themselves and have good control of a cup. They also begin to try and wash themselves, help with dressing, and by age 2 they may begin to gain control of bowels and bladder.|
|24 - 36 months||Children are increasingly able to feed self and use cup/glass. They can generally undress themselves and show signs of being ready for toilet training.|