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Infant Toddler Development Training
Module 1, Lesson 4

Activity #1

This lesson addressed various developmental disorders and disabilities that can be present in children from birth to age 3. Reflect on the various types of disorders and disabilities you have seen in the children for whom you have provided services or have knowledge of in case you are not currently working in the field. In your experiences or personal knowledge, which of the developmental disorders and disabilities addressed in this lesson are the most prevalent? Of the disorders/disabilities you have found to be most prevalent, were they more genetic in nature or have other causes? In your experiences as an ITDS or based on your personal knowledge, do you see a trend or increase in some of these disorders/ disabilities? If so, what do you feel is the reason for the trend/increase?

Activity #2

Reflect on the following scenario:
Sarah is a twelve month old who has just begun to crawl. She is beginning to pull herself up to stand but has not taken steps independently. When she sees something she wants she shows you by pointing and grunting. She has not begun to feed herself nor does she hold her own cup/bottle. When smiled at, she does not return the smile. She has begun to babble but has not begun to make simple sounds.

According to the information presented above, identify some warning signs of possible developmental delays. In what areas does Sarah exhibit appropriate developmental milestones based on her age? Did you have any problems determining possible delays? If so, why?

Activity #3

As an ITDS, have you had an occasion or two where the parent or caregiver asked for your opinion concerning their child's development? Did you have difficulty addressing their concerns or did you feel comfortable in sharing your knowledge of child development? What are some possible reasons, other than those items addressed in the lesson above, for difficulties in identifying possible delays in child development? A good resource to assist families in understanding specific disabilities is March of Dimes.

Lesson 4 Highlights

This lesson addressed prevalent disabilities and disorders that can affect a child's development. Causes and symptoms were presented for each disability and/or disorder. Developmental warning signs were identified for various age levels to assist in determining when a possible problem exists. In addition, several factors were addressed that complicate the determination of a delay or developmental deviation.

References

Allen, K. E., & Marotz, L. R. (1999). Developmental profiles: Pre-birth through eight. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers.

Bagamato, S., & Feldman, H. (1989). Closed head injury in infants and children. Infants and Young Children, 4, 1-9.

Bauer, A., & Shea, T.M. (1986). Hepatitis B: An occupational hazard for special educators. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 11, 171-175.

Behrman, R. E. (1992). Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

Berkow, R. (1992). The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. Rahway, NJ: Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories.

Blackman, J. A. (1990). Medical aspects of developmental disabilities in children birth to three. Rockville, MD: Aspen Publishers.

Bleck, E., & Nagel, D. (1982). Physically handicapped children: A medical atlas for teachers. Orlando: Grune & Stratton.

Caldwell, M. B., & Rogers, M. F. (1991). Epidemiology of pediatric HIV infection. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 38(1), 1-16.

Heller, K. W., Alberto, P. A., Forney, P. E., & Schwartzman, M. N. (1996). Understanding physical, sensory, and health impairments. Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/Cole.

Holmes, G. L. (1992). The epilepsies. In R. B. David (Ed.), Pediatric neurology. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (1992). Recommendations for the use of folic acid to reduce the number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 41, 1-7.

Nelson, K. B., & Ellenberg, J. H. (1986). Antecedents of cerebral palsy: Multivariate analysis of risk. The New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 81-86.

Sanford, M. K., Kissling, G. E., & Joubert, P. E. (1992). Neural tube defect etiology: New evidence concerning maternal hyperthermia, health and diet. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34, 661-675.

Scholz, S., & Albert, E. D. (1993). Immunogenetic aspects of juvenile chronic arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 11(9), S37-S41.

Sher, J. (1990). Muscular dystrophy. In M. Adachi & J. H. Sher (Eds), Neuromuscular Disease. New York: Igadu-Shoin.

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