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Infant Toddler Development Training
Module 4, Lesson 2

Activity #4
Scaffolding Ian's Social Development

Now that you have read all of ways Ian's father supported Ian's development in other areas, use this same model to reflect on potential scaffolding by Ian's father to promote social-emotional play and what Ian's responses might be - the interactions between the two with Ian's father leading the play interactions.

 

Activity #5
Scaffolding Ian's next Planned Meeting/Visit

Consider the next planned session/visit of the ITDS with the family. After Ian's father explains how he scaffolded Ian's play, how might the service provider reflect on this situation with Ian's father. Consider what you learned about Reflection and Discussion, one of the steps in coaching from Lesson 1 (Hanft, Rush, Sheldon, 2004 ).

Which of these would you utilize?

  • Assist the learner in discovering what he already knows or needs to discover by asking the right questions in the right way
    • What's happening now? What happened?
    • What do you want to accomplish?
    • How did you decide where to focus?
    • What have you tried? What did you do?
    • How could you do it differently?
    • How will you know when you are successful?
  • Provide feedback on observation and/or action
  • Share information, resources, and supports such as:
    • Instruction/teaching
    • Demonstration/modeling
    • Joint problem-solving
  • Confirm understanding of the learner
  • Review what has been accomplished, new actions or strategies to implement, etc.
  • Provide encouragement
  • Acknowledge the learner's strengths, commitment, competence, mastery, and accomplishments

Lesson 2 Highlights

Infants and toddlers thrive when securely attached to a caregiver and/or parent and this is achieved through play interactions.

Well developed and relevant activity settings and consideration of the infant/toddler's interests are positively related to learning opportunities and child functioning.

Service providers are adjusting their services to a coaching model, while both families and service providers are recognizing the value of this coaching model in social-emotional outcomes for infants/toddlers.

Families of infants/toddlers have the right to interventions for their infants/toddlers according to family, personal, or cultural beliefs, even if these differ from the Service Provider.

In the article by Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2001). Cross-cultural infant care and issues of equity and social justice, the author outlines the following three categories of solutions to problems resulting from differences between professionals and parents:

  • resolution through caregiver enlightenment
  • resolution through compromise
  • resolution through parent education

One important quality that makes the SCERTS Model: Enhancing Communication and Socio-emotional Abilities of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder relevant to Part C coaching, is that the developmental objectives for the child in Social Communication (SC) and Emotional Regulation (ER) are addressed not only by focusing on the child, but also by measuring the progress of that child's partners in their ability to implement Transactional Supports (TS) (e.g., interpersonal supports, learning supports, and environmental modifications) to achieve more successful social exchanges.

There are a variety of supports and types of questions a service provider might use during a Reflection and discussion session with a parent after the parent has been engaged in an activity with an infant/toddler.

Infants and toddlers thrive when securely attached to a caregiver and/or parent and this is achieved through play interactions.

Well developed and relevant activity settings and consideration of the infant/toddler's interests are positively related to learning opportunities and child functioning.

Service providers are adjusting their services to a coaching model, while both families and service providers are recognizing the value of this coaching model in social-emotional outcomes for infants/toddlers.

Families of infants/toddlers have the right to interventions for their infants/toddlers according to family, personal, or cultural beliefs, even if these differ from the Service Provider.

In the article by Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2001). Cross-cultural infant care and issues of equity and social justice, the author outlines the following three categories of solutions to problems resulting from differences between professionals and parents:

  • resolution through caregiver enlightenment
  • resolution through compromise
  • resolution through parent education

One important quality that makes the SCERTS Model: Enhancing Communication and Socio-emotional Abilities of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder relevant to Part C coaching, is that the developmental objectives for the child in Social Communication (SC) and Emotional Regulation (ER) are addressed not only by focusing on the child, but also by measuring the progress of that child's partners in their ability to implement Transactional Supports (TS) (e.g., interpersonal supports, learning supports, and environmental modifications) to achieve more successful social exchanges.

There are a variety of supports and types of questions a service provider might use during a Reflection and discussion session with a parent after the parent has been engaged in an activity with an infant/toddler.

References

Deiner, P.L.. (2005) Resources for educating children with diverse abilities: Birth to eight, 4th Ed. Clifton Park, NY: Thompson Delmar Learning.

Dinnebel, L.A., Hale, L., Rule, S. (1999). Early intervention program practices. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 19(4), 225-235.

Dunst, C.J., Bruder, M.B., Trivette, C.M., Hamby, D. Raab, M. & McLean, M. (2001). Characteristics and consequences of everyday natural learning opportunities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(2), 68-92.

Frost, J.L., Wortham, S.C., Reifel, S. (2005). Play and child development. Upper Saddle River, 2nd Ed. NJ: Pearson Education.

Gonzalez-Mena, J., & Peshotan Bhavnagri, N.P. (2000, September). Diversity and infant/toddler caregiving Young Children, 55(5), 31-35.

Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2001, November 3). Cross-cultural infant care and issues of social justice. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 2(3), 368-371.

Hanft, B.E., Rush, D.D., Shelden, M.L. (2004). Coaching families and colleagues in early childhood. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Johnson, J.E., Christie, J.F.,Yawkey, T. (1999). Play and early childhood development, 2nd Ed. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.

Piaget (1962). Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood. New York: Norton.

Tabors, P. O. (1998). What early childhood educators need to know: Developing effective programs for linguistically and culturally diverse children and families. Young Children, 53(6), 20-26.

Vygostsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Websites

  • Apples Video Magazine site contains the video Natural Environments: It's More Than A Setting It's A Philosophy featuring Nancy Bokermann (Physical Therapist), Kay Flanigan (Parent), and The Portage Project Outreach, March 18, 1999.
  • Autism E-Pak #2 site features a variety of information materials on autism as well as case studies.
  • Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion
  • Program for Infant Toddler Caregivers - this site reviews the program seeking to ensure that America's infants get a safe, healthy, emotionally secure and intellectually rich start in life. Its three pronged mission is to: 1) increase the availability and quality of child care for all children under age three; 2) disseminate information that increases the practice of responsive, respectful and relationship based infant toddler care; and 3) influence national, regional and local policies and practices so that the needs and interests of individual infants, toddlers, and their families are the foundation for all curriculum development and program activity.

 

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