Infant Toddler Development Training
|Age||Examples of Motor Play behaviors||Typical Adult support with objects or others||Adaptive Adult support with objects or others|
|Young Infants Birth to 8 Months||-baby uses complex reflexes
-puts hands in mouth
-grasps, releases, reaches
|-provide crib mobile for visual tracking
-play "finger grab"
-Look John has Mommy's finger
-play pat-cake, this Little Piggy
|-install a crib mobile that has music and lights
-hold the baby's hands up for patty cake
-use a positioning chair or Boppie to help the baby sit up
|Mobile Infants 8 Months to 18 Months||-sits well in chair
-pulls self up
-uses marker on paper
-stoops, trots, moves backwards
|-have containers and safe objects to put in and dump out repeatedly
-push and pull toys together
-step and down small step together
-point at objects together – model or position as needed
|- get a big pot or bowl and have easy to grip balls that dump in that bigger opening
-have sturdy walker toy that the child can use to balance as he walks
-tape foot prints on the floor that the baby can step on instead of up
|Toddlers and Twos 18 Months to 35 Months||-scribbles with marker
-kicks a ball
-can jump off one step
-stands and walks on tiptoes
-makes horizontal crayon stroke
|-demonstrate using pens, markers
-get at bottom of step so toddler can jump to adult -help the child with rounded scissors -throw and catch a ball together
|-have large crayons and pens with grips for easier handling
-have beads or tubes with larger openings and a stiffer string for bead stringing
-give the child a mitt covered in Velcro and throw a ball covered in the opposite Velcro hook of the mitt
From Brain Wonders: Bredekamp & Copple, l987; Frost, Worthington, Reifel, 2005; Gozalez-Mena, Eyer, 2004; Johnson, Christie, &Yawkey, 1999; Johnson-Martin, Jens, Attermeier, & Hacker, 1991; O'Brien, 1997.
Everyday Routines, Activities and Places (ERAP) Related To Fine and Gross Motor Development
Review the following list of ERAP that provide opportunities for motor development. This is great information to share with families regarding how to help their infant or toddler acquire new skills. This is very appropriate if functional outcomes on the IFSP include improving the child's play skills to be able to entertain him/herself, join in family activities, or participate in active play with peers.
- Doing the dishes - let the infant or toddler sit by you and periodically let him/her splash in the water and blow on the bubbles with you (not too hot)
- Taking out the trash - a mobile infant can hold on to one side of the bag with you. A non-mobile infant in carrier can go with you and you can wave bye to the garbage in the can.
- Dusting - infants and toddlers love to dust! (too bad this motor urge dissipates after preschool; ) Give them a paper or cloth towel and let them swish it around. You may hold the hand of some babies with low muscle tone.
- Sweeping - get a small broom for the mobile infant/toddler and let them work with you. Show them back and forth movements.
- Watering the plants, inside and out - Well no one ever said it might not get a little messy at times, but just put a little in baby's watering can - it's only water!
- Cooking - this will take some finesse as you don't want children to get burned. Often small babies are happy to sit with a bowl and spoon while you cook.
- Fixing things - there are toy tools that are safe for infants/toddlers that they can use while you fix, or paint. Very young children will paint for hours with a bucket of water on a surface, especially if the surface is exposed to sunlight and dries ready for another "coat".
Reflect on the opportunities described above for including infants and toddlers in daily routines. Think about how the ITDS can provide support to families to try these embedded skills in ERAP.
Consider the following scenario which involves helping Sam feel successful in his motor skills when playing with peers.
One of the children you are working with, Sam, a 2.9 year old with a mild motor delay, goes to a "Mommy and Me" neighborhood playgroup with his mom, three other children and their mothers. There, mothers and their young children get together once each week for fun and fellowship. Mom is concerned that Sam cannot play the active throwing and catching games with his friends. Sam gets frustrated. A functional outcome on Sam's IFSP is that he will be able to enjoy active games with his little friends.
Go to the following website (and/or others that are your favorites for motor skills and play items).
Look for ideas that might be useful in helping Sam gain skills in motor development and be fun for play at home and when he goes to his playgroup. Come up with two ideas that might help Sam improve his motor skills for active play with his friends. These can be any items and may be some things you make or adapt rather than buy, i.e. ball of crumpled newspaper.