Infant Toddler Development Training
|Age||Examples of Cognitive Play behaviors||Typical Adult support with objects or others||Adaptive Adult support with objects or others|
|Young Infants: Birth to 8 Months||-follows slow moving objects with eyes
-hits or kicks object to make a pleasing sight or sound continue
-reaches for and grasps toys
-tries to cause things to happen
|-move a train or other toy across the floor while the baby watches
-provide a variety of objects with different tastes, touches, sounds
-contingent responses to and praise baby to reinforce baby's attempts
|-turn the baby's head toward a moving object
-move baby's foot to object to show baby what can happen if he/she kicks
-retrieve and provide objects in close range for baby to easily see and manipulate
|Mobile Infants: 8 Months to 18 Months||-searches for a toy under a cloth and persists searches for objects under other toys/cloth
-pushes foot into shoe, arm into sleeve
-handles cup and spoon
-identifies some body parts
-knows own name
-when toy winds down, continues the activity manually
-creeps or walks away to avoid something baby doesn't like
-begins to fantasize with real objects and engage in some role-play
|-play hide and seek with objects and try hiding objects in different places
-leave extra time for dressing so baby can try to put on shoe or shirt
-provide dishes, cups, eating utensils that are safe for baby to use by self
-play - Where is (name of baby)? and look around for baby and have the baby come to adult
-provide more complex toys such as jack in box, Busy-body toys that have buttons and knobs to turn
|-model the hide and seek game
- repeating multiple times and hide the object while the child watches
-provide some adult hand-over baby's hand help to try out object use and putting on shoes
-provide objects with multi-sensory experiences
-start with large-scale three-dimensional objects that are stimulating to baby's object choice and play style.
-use corresponding words to enhance and reinforce baby's actions upon objects
|Toddlers and Twos: 18 Months to 35 Months||-explores everything!
-identifies more body parts
-fits forms into form boards and can do simple puzzles
-uses terms for past & present, i.e. yesterday
-may count 1, 2, 3
-is more selective when working with ring-stack toys - only chooses from objects with hole in the middle that will fit on post.
-can do simple sorting of colors, hard-soft, big-little
-assertive with words and actions "Me do it!"
|-provide a safe space to explore objects
-ask the child - "Where is your (body part)?"
-show, model, and then allow child a place and space to work with puzzles and simple games
-provide natural experiences such a putting napkins on table for child to count
-have collections of objects such as toy cars that the toddler can sort
-co-play with toddler at the water table to illustrate ways sand and water can be measured, compared, flow throw water wheels, etc.
|-break down the task into smaller skills (use task analysis)
-employ a touch-demonstrate-say style for visual-spatial learners
-put knobs on puzzle pieces to make these easier to grasp
-make Velcro board for toddler to easily stick objects that go together on board
-make sure objects have multi-sensory capabilities to appeal to children and add stimulation
-limit and then add more objects to the sand & water tables to increase complexity of play as the toddler is ready
From: Brain Wonders (Bredekamp & Copple, l987; Frost, Worthington, Reifel, 2004; Gozalez-Mena, Eyer, 2004; Johnson, Christie, &Yawkey, 1999; Johnson-Martin, Jens, Attermeier, & Hacker, 1991; O'Brien, 1997).