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Chemical & Biological Attack Guidance
In case of a chemical or biological weapon attack near you, authorities will instruct you on the best course of action. This may be to evacuate the area immediately, to seek shelter at a designated location, or to take immediate shelter where you are and seal the premises. The best way to protect yourself is to take emergency preparedness measures ahead of time and to get medical attention as soon as possible, if needed.
Chemical. Chemical warfare agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids or solids that have toxic effects on people, animals or plants. They can be released by bombs, sprayed from aircraft, boats, or vehicles, or used as a liquid to create a hazard to people and the environment. Some chemical agents may be odorless and tasteless. They can have an immediate effect (a few seconds to a few minutes) or a delayed effect (several hours to several days). While potentially lethal, chemical agents are difficult to deliver in lethal concentrations. Outdoors, the agents often dissipate rapidly. Chemical agents are also difficult to produce.
There are six types of agents:
Biological. Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can kill or incapacitate people, livestock, and crops.
The three basic groups of biological agents which would likely be used as weapons are:
Bacteria. Bacteria are small free-living organisms that reproduce by simple division and are easy to grow. The diseases they produce often respond to treatment with antibiotics.
Viruses. Viruses are organisms which require living cells in which to reproduce and are intimately dependent upon the body they infect. Viruses produce diseases which generally do not respond to antibiotics. However, antiviral drugs are sometimes effective.
Toxins. Toxins are poisonous substances found in, and extracted from, living plants, animals, or micro-organisms; some toxins can be produced or altered by chemical means. Some toxins can be treated with specific antitoxins and selected drugs.
Most biological agents are difficult to grow and maintain. Many break down quickly when exposed to sunlight and other environmental factors, while others such as anthrax spores are very long lived. They can be dispersed by spraying them in the air, or infecting animals which carry the disease to humans as well through food and water contamination.
Aerosols. Biological agents are dispersed into the air, forming a fine mist that may drift for miles. Inhaling the agent may cause disease in people or animals.
Animals. Some diseases are spread by insects and animals, such as fleas, mice, flies, and mosquitoes. Deliberately spreading diseases through livestock is also referred to as agroterrorism.
Food and water contamination. Some pathogenic organisms and toxins may persist in food and water supplies. Most microbes can be killed, and toxins deactivated by cooking food and boiling water.
Anthrax spores formulated as a white powder were mailed to individuals in the government and media in the fall of 2001. Postal sorting machines and the opening of letters dispersed the spores as aerosols. Several deaths resulted. The effect was to disrupt mail service and to cause a widespread fear of handling delivered mail among the public.
Person-to-person spread of a few infectious agents is also possible. Humans have been the source of infection for smallpox, plague and the Lassa viruses.
What to do to prepare for a chemical or biological attack. Assemble a disaster supply kit (see the Emergency Planning and Disaster Supplies chapter for more information) and be sure to include:
What to do during a chemical or biological attack. Listen to your radio for instructions from authorities such as whether to remain inside or to evacuate.
If you are instructed to remain in your home, the building where you are, or other shelter during a chemical or biological attack:
f you are caught in an unprotected area, you should:
What to do after a chemical attack. Immediate symptoms of exposure to chemical agents may include blurred vision, eye irritation, difficulty breathing and nausea. A person affected by a chemical or biological agent requires immediate attention by professional medical personnel. If medical help is not immediately available, decontaminate yourself and assist in decontaminating others. Decontamination is needed within minutes of exposure to minimize health consequences. (However, you should not leave the safety of a shelter to go outdoors, to help others until authorities announce it is safe to do so.) Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to chemical agents:
Remove all clothing and other items in contact with the body. Contaminated clothing normally removed over the head should be cut off to avoid contact with the eyes, nose, and mouth. Put into a plastic bag if possible. Decontaminate hands using soap and water. Remove eyeglasses or contact lenses. Put glasses in a pan of household bleach to decontaminate.
Remove all items in contact with the body. Flush eyes with lots of water. Gently wash face and hair with soap and water; then thoroughly rinse with water. Decontaminate other body areas likely to have been contaminated. Blot (do not swab or scrape) with a cloth soaked in soapy water and rinse with clear water. Change into uncontaminated clothes. Clothing stored in drawers or closets is likely to be uncontaminated. If possible, proceed to a medical facility for screening.
What to do after a biological attack. In many biological attacks, people will not know they have been exposed to an agent. In such situations, the first evidence of an attack may be when you notice symptoms of the disease caused by an agent exposure, and you should seek immediate medical attention for treatment.
In some situations, like the anthrax letters sent in 2001, people may be alerted to a potential exposure. If this is the case, pay close attention to all official warnings and instructions on how to proceed. The delivery of medical services for a biological event may be handled differently to respond to increased demand. Again, it will be important for you to pay attention to official instructions via radio, television and emergency alert systems.
If your skin or clothing comes in contact with a visible, potentially infectious substance you should remove and bag your clothes and personal items and wash yourself with warm soapy water immediately. Put on clean clothes and seek medical assistance.
For more information visit the website for the Centers for Disease Control and prevention, www.bt.cdc.gov.
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