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Environmental Health - Water Programs - Well Construction


All wells installed in Volusia County must have a permit, this includes Monitoring wells, Injection wells, Potable (drinking) wells or any other borings or holes placed into our aquifer as well as Abandonment of wells. The Volusia County Health Department has been delegated by the St. Johns River Water Management District to issue permits in Volusia County for all wells that are to be installed or abandoned. There are areas in the county which require specialized or specific construction standards for wells such as, on the beach side of the County no wells over 2 inches in diameter are allowed due to salt water intrusion problems. On the west side of the County there are areas were pesticides were used that require extensive specific construction standards for wells. Further information on these areas can be obtained by calling our offices in your specific area of the county and talking to the water specialist in that office.

Click on one of the links below for more information: *Note: This page contains materials in the Portable Document Format (PDF). The free Adobe Acrobat Reader may be required to view these files.

Well Permitting Packet and Forms

You can print the entire Well Permitting Packet or the individual forms as needed.

Individual Forms

Private Water System Construction Forms

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Water Quality Problems

The St. Johns River Water Management District has delegated authority to the Volusia County Health Department to implement and administer the program for regulation of water well construction standards for all wells in Volusia County unless these wells are within Chapter 62- 524, FAC, delineated areas or wells having a casing diameter 6“ or greater.



Probable Causes

Suggested Treatments

Intestinal disorders.

Water may or may not have “off” taste or odor.

Contamination of water source. Potential contaminants include fertilizer, pesticides, animal waste, human waste, and industrial chemicals.

Have water tested immediately for suspected contaminants. Disinfect water supply with strong chlorine solution and install automatic chlorinator, if appropriate. Install check valves or other protection at plumbing cross connections and maintain air laps between faucets and any possible source of contamination.

Soap doesn’t lather well.

Greasy, grimy rings in tubs and sinks. Dingy laundry with a harsh feel and possibly white or gray streaks. Milky film or spots on dishes washed in automatic dishwasher. Scale build-up in water heater. Scale build-up in pipes and reduced water flow. Scale build-up in cooking utensils.

Hard water due to calcium and magnesium compounds dissolved from rocks and minerals in the earth. The most commonly used description of hard water is: 0-3 grains per gallon= Soft 4-9 grains per gallon= Average over 10 grains per gallon= Hard

Install a water softener or reverse osmosis system for both hot and cold water, bypassing outside water lines. Kitchen cold water line may be bypassed if water softener is selected and sodium in the diet is a concern. Alteratively, soften water in washer, tub and basins by adding non-precipitating water conditioners. Special scale filters may be attached to the cold water supply lines to appliances.

Reddish-brown stains in sinks, toilets, tubs, dishwashers, and dishes.

Reddish-brown stains or yellowing of laundry, especially after using chlorine bleach. Water tastes metallic. Brown sediment in standing water. (Also see reddish slime.)

Dissolved iron in the water that is oxidized by air to form iron oxide, which is insoluble. (Also see iron bacteria.)

After determining type and amount of iron problem, select appropriate iron removal equipment such as chlorinator and sand filter, high capacity water softener or manganese greensand filter. Choice of treatment for iron problems can be complex, depending on the level of iron in the water and the presence of other impurities. Purchase equipment from a reliable dealer who has had training in this area of water treatment.

Reddish slime on walls of toilet flush tank and reduced water flow.

Slimy material suspended in clear water.

Iron bacteria, which live on iron in the water and eventually harden into scale.

Install a chlorinator to feed into the well near the pump intake and an activated carbon filter to remove excess chlorine and other objectionable tastes or odors.

Corroding water pipes.

Water dripping from corroded iron or galvanized pipe has a rusty color. Corroded copper or brass pipes cause blue-green stains on plumbing fixtures. Laundry may have red, reddish-brown, or blue-green stains. Water has a metallic taste.

Low pH, commonly called acid water; often caused by a high concentration of carbon dioxide.

Depending on the acidity level, use appropriate treatment such as aeration, soda ash feeder, or neutralizing filter.

Rotten egg odor from both hot and cold water pipes.

Copper and silver turn black in the water. Iron, steel, or copper parts of pumps, pipes, and fixtures corroded. Black stains on laundry and porcelain. Black particles in water.

Hydrogen sulfide, sulfur/sulfate reducing bacteria.

Compounds such as iron sulfide, calcium sulfide, and sodium sulfide can interfere with hydrogen sulfide removal so multiple treatments may be required. Appropriate treatments include chlorination or aeration followed by filtration through a sand filter

Rotten egg odor from hot water pipe only.


Chemical reaction of anti-corrosion magnesium rod in electric water heater.

Remove magnesium rod and replace with chemical solution feeder to protect water heater from corrosion or chlorinate water.

Objectionable taste or odor other than hydrogen sulfide.


Decaying organic matter, pollution from surface drainage, insufficient chlorine being used to disinfect water.

Install activated carbon filter or automatic chlorinator followed by activated carbon filter.

Turbid, cloudy or dirty water. Dingy laundry.


Silt, sediment, small organisms or organic matter, suspended in the water.

Install a fiber or sand filter.

Black stains.

On sinks, tubs, and laundry. Water may feel greasy.

Manganese (often appears with iron).

Iron removal treatment also removes manganese

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Homeowner Information

Drinking Water from Household Wells

If you get one of these on your door knob what does it mean and who do you call?

Chemical Testing Suspected Pollution Source Leak Near your Well - Door Hanger

Chemical Testing Door Hangar This notice would be left on your door if we have been notified of a possible contamination site within 500 feet of your property and directed to test your well for certain chemicals. There may be no problem with your water supply but we want to make sure your well has not been contaminated.

Legal Notice of Requirements for your well - Door Hanger

Legal Notice of Requirements for your well door hangar This notice would be left on your door if your well has not been tested for Bacteria, Chlorides, and Nitrates as required by Part II, Chapter 74, Article II, Section 74-40 (2) (i) Volusia County Code of Ordinances. The purpose of this requirement is to make sure you are not drinking a contaminated well. The samples must be run by a certified lab. Our County Environmental Health Laboratory is certified to perform these test and or you can contact our department for other certified laboratories’ in the area.

Legal Notice of Well Abandonment Requirements - Door Hanger

Legal notice of well abandonment requirements door hangar This notice would be left on your door if you have a well that is “Abandoned” not in use or has been replaced with a new well. All wells must be in proper working order. If your well is not, of if it has been removed from service, it must be properly abandoned and a permit is required for this procedure.

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Hiring a Well Contractor

Prior to selecting a water well contractor for a job, it is a good idea to obtain information about several contractors in the area before making a choice. Here are some considerations:

  • Is the contactor licensed by the state? (Not all states require licensing.)
  • Is the contractor certified through the National Ground Water Association (NGWA)? The highest level a contractor can achieve is (Master Ground Water Contractor (MGWC), passing all specialty NGWA certification exams and a general exam.
  • Does the contractor submit well logs?
  • Does the contractor have adequate equipment in good condition to do the job?
  • Does the contractor have adequate liability and worker's compensation insurance to protect you?
  • Is the contractor familiar with applicable health and safety codes?
  • What is the contractor's reputation with previous customers?
  • Will the contractor furnish a written contract specifying the terms and conditions of the job?
Written Contracts

It is important to obtain a written contract when preparing to have a well constructed. Unless you know what each contractor will do for his specified price, you cannot compare offers and decide which one to hire. NGWA makes available standard contract forms to its members. For a drilled well, the contract might include:

  • Liability insurance coverage held by both the owner and the contractor.
  • A statement that all work is to comply with local and state regulations and codes.
  • The diameter and well thickness of the casing to be used.
  • The type of well development and yield evaluation procedures to be used.
  • The type of screen to be installed, where needed.
  • They type of well cap or seal to be provided.
  • The disinfection procedure.
  • The cleanup after drilling, which includes all material abandoned without authorization at a drill site except drill cuttings and waste water.
  • An anticipated date for start of drilling.
  • A guarantee of materials and workmanship. The contract should specify that the contractor will return to do or to correct the initial work if necessary.

An itemized list of charges is better than a lump sum. The list could include:

  • Cost of drilling per foot.
  • Cost of casing per foot.
  • Cost of other materials, such as drive shoe, grout, and well cap.
  • Cost of other operations, such as grouting, developing (if longer than one hour, as in screened wells), test pumping, and disinfection.
  • Cost of drilling deeper and/or second well, if required to ensure an adequate water supply.
  • Cost of abandonment should it prove necessary (for instance, if salt water is encountered and another site is selected).
  • Any costs that are not included in the specifications.
Finished Well Checklist

After the well has been constructed and before the contractor removes his equipment from the site, you should inspect the well. Here is a list of items to check:

  • Well Depth - This is easily done by tying a weight on a tape. Verify the measurement against the well construction report made out by the contractor.
  • Well Yield - Ask the contractor at how many gallons per minute (gpm) the well was tested, what distance the water level dropped during the test and how quickly the water level recovered after the test.
  • Well Cap - Ensure that the well is capped and secure and that the cap is at least 6 inches above ground level.
  • Disinfection - Ask the contractor if the well was disinfected.
  • Well Construction Record - Make certain that you receive your copy of the well record. The contractor is required to deliver copies of the record to the owner. It would be advisable to keep your well record with your house deed so that the information is passed on to future owners.
Keep in Mind
  • Trust the contractor's judgement in solving unforeseen difficulties that may come up and discuss unforeseen costs.
  • If original construction plans must be changed, discuss the options with the contractor.
  • Don't expect the contractor to work for free if the well does not fulfill expectations.

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Training Opportunities for Well Drillers

No training courses are available at this time.

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Page last updated: 06/20/13