Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an infection caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The virus is spread through the bite of an infected mosquito, similar to West Nile and dengue viruses. The Chikungunya virus was first identified during an outbreak in 1952 in southern Tanzania, although it is suspected to have been present in Africa and Asia for much longer. It is not currently found in the United States.
Chikungunya fever outbreaks have been reported in Africa, southern Europe, Southeast Asia, India, and islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In December 2013, a cluster of CHIK cases were reported from St. Martin, an island in the Caribbean. This is the first known occurrence of local CHIKV transmission in the Americas.
Chikungunya virus is spread by two mosquito species: Aedes aegypti (primarily) and Aedes albopictus, both found in Florida. While the virus is not currently found in the state, introductions are possible if a CHIKV infected visitor or returning traveler is bitten by Florida mosquitoes in the early stages (the first week) of their illness. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people they bite.
The same actions to prevent other mosquitoborne illness such as dengue and West Nile virus disease are effective for preventing CHIK. While traveling in areas where CHIK, dengue or other mosquitoborne diseases are present remember to:
An infected person will typically become ill three to seven days after the mosquito bite, but symptoms can begin anywhere from one to 12 days post-bite. These symptoms can last 3-10 days. Up to 28% of people who are infected will not have any symptoms (asymptomatic), although they can still be infectious to mosquitoes for a short time if bitten. Persons at greatest risk for severe illness include newborn infants, those over 65 years of age, and those who have other health conditions. Treatment is symptomatic or supportive.
Symptoms may include:
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