Florida Department of Health
4052 Bald Cypress Way, Bin A-20
Tallahassee, Florida 32399
Tuberculosis is a serious disease that can affect more than just the person who has the illness. All persons in close contact with an individual carrying TB is at risk of contracting the infection. If the questions below do not provide you with the answers you need, contact us at 850-245-4350 and will be happy to clarify.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is spread from person to person through the air. TB usually affects the lungs. The germs are put into the air when a person with TB of the lung coughs, sneezes, laughs or sings. TB can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys or the spine.
General symptoms may include feeling weak or sick, weight loss, fever and/or night sweats. Symptoms of TB of the lungs may include cough, chest pain and/or coughing up blood. Other symptoms depend on the particular part of the body that is affected.
Tuberculosis is spread from person to person through the air. Through the 'shared air principle' TB germs are put into the air when someone with pulmonary TB disease (TB in their lungs) coughs or sneezes. A person who breathes in the bacteria can become infected.
YES! About 8 million new cases occur each year in the world and over 13,000 cases are reported in the United States. There are also an estimated 10 to 15 million people in the U.S. who are infected with the TB germ, with potential to develop TB disease in the future.
Anyone can get TB, but some people are at higher risk. Those at higher risk include:
First, get a TB skin test or blood test. If it is positive, you will probably be given other tests to see if you have TB infection or TB disease.
What is the difference between TB infection and TB disease?
People with TB disease are sick from germs that are active in their body. They usually have one or more of the symptoms of TB. These people are often capable of giving the infection to others. Permanent body damage and death can result from the disease. Medicines which can cure TB are prescribed for these people. People with TB infection (without disease) have the germ that causes TB in their body. They are not sick because the germ lies inactive in their body. They cannot spread the germ to others. However, these people may develop TB disease in the future, especially if they are in one of the high risk groups listed under "Who gets TB?" Medicine is often prescribed for these people to prevent them from developing TB disease.
You can get a TB skin test from your doctor or local health department.
A small needle is used to put some testing material, called tuberculin, just under the skin. This is usually done on the inside of the arm. The person getting the test must return in 48 to 72 hours to see if there is a reaction to the test. If there is a reaction, the size of the reaction is measured.
A negative test usually means the person is not infected. However, the test may be falsely negative in a person who has been recently infected. It usually takes 2 to 10 weeks after exposure to a person with TB disease for the skin test to react positive. The test may also be falsely negative if the person's immune system is not working properly.
A positive reaction usually means that the person has been infected with the TB germ. It does not necessarily mean that the person has TB disease. Other tests, such as an x-ray or sputum sample, are needed to see if the person has TB disease.
A needle is inserted into a vein to collect a small sample of blood into a specimen tube, which is sent off to a laboratory for processing. Results are usually reported to your doctor’s office or local health department with 48-72 hours. Depending on which blood test you are given, your results may be positive, negative, borderline, indeterminate, or invalid. Your doctor will review your test results with you to determine whether you have or have not been infected with the TB germ, or if you need to be re-tested.
Get required follow up tests. Follow your doctor's advice and take the medicine as prescribed. Today, TB is easily prevented and cured with medication.